I wanted to spend a day on 20th-century chemist Percy Julian, but ran out of time. Here’s a link to the interactive Chemical Heritage Foundation site about Julian’s life. Within the site, the CHF also links the very good NOVA video about Julian.
Greg Miller wrote an article for Wired’s website entitled, “Vintage Pesticide Paraphernalia From the Glory Days of DDT.” The article draws on the collections of the Chemical Heritage Foundation and ties nicely to our recent discussions of Silent Spring. Objects like those shown in the article help historians with an extended set of questions about an historical episode as compared to what we can pull out of books and articles alone.
In our last class of the summer session, we will discuss Paolo Bacigalupi’s short story “Calorie Man.” Set in Bacigalupi’s award-winning WindUp universe, “Calorie Man” focuses our attention on the ethics of genetically modified organisms and intellectual property rights. In a world where the main focus of the police is to protect corporations from piracy, geneticists can be deemed enemies of the state and terrorists for trying to feed people. We will use this literature as an entry point into a discussion of the Green Revolution, GMOs, and gene patenting.
- Study for the final exam
- Finish your personal essay
- Review the course on eval.ou.edu
Here is the new History of Science Blog carnival. If you are still needing to do a couple of blog posts, check out this link for ideas.
Having watched one of Naomi Oreskes’ presentation on the Merchants of Doubt students will discuss the history of climate change theory. We will start with a brief timeline of scientific research on climate change. Then we will work in groups to study the greenhouse effects of carbon dioxide based on Spencer Weart’s digital version of The Discovery of Global Warming. We will close with a discussion of technological efforts at climate engineering. Students will discuss James Fleming’s Chemical Heritage article, “Manufacturing the Weather.”
- Oreskes’ presentation
- James Hansen’s Ted Talk
- More information on Hansen’s Tax and Dividend
- Course files (Climate Change Timeline)
- Inhofe’s 2003 Speech
- Read Paolo Bacigalupi’s “The Calorie Man” (the first half of the pdf)
- In the comments below, answer these questions:
- In Bacigalupi’s WindUp world, food is measured in calories and energy in joules bound up in springs. In what ways does reducing these staples to homogenized, commensurable numbers symbolize a dystopian future.
- How is science to blame for the dystopia?
- How different is this dystopian future from our modern reality?
Today we will be discussing Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring and its impact on the use of pesticides in America. We will start by looking at some of the background history of DDT from the 1940s and 50s. We will then discuss Carson’s biography, her book, and her legacy.
- Homework: watch Naomi Oreskes, “Answering Climate Change Skeptics” on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXyTpY0NCp0
- Optional: Oreskes’ Ted Talk, “Why We Should Trust Scientists”
- Begin working through the review for the final exam
Here’s a nice blog post on Beatrix Potter’s childhood interest in science. Again we see science as iconography and the overlapping interests of literature and science for the middle classes.
In 1943, Winston Churchill had said, “as for any post-war problems there are none that cannot be amicably settled between me and my friend President Roosevelt.” Whether that was arrogance or naivety, history would prove him sadly mistaken. After Russia tested their first atomic bomb in 1949, the arms race was on between the two Super Powers and a wave of atomic tests that both astonishes and terrifies the modern viewer began:
We will discuss nuclear testing, arms limitation negotiations, nuclear proliferation, and modern advances in uranium enrichment.
- Read and explore Mark Stoll’s Virtual Exhibition on Silent Spring, presented by the Environment and Society Portal.
- I have also uploaded a handful of the early book reviews on Silent Spring to our class folder. We will discuss these reviews in class on Monday to try to get a sense of the debate that erupted around its publication in 1962. Reading them ahead of class would be helpful but is not mandatory.
Having discussed the logistics and design behind the first two nuclear bombs (the only two ever used in war), today we will ask the question of whether or not the bombings were justified / necessary. First the last student group will present Masuji Ibuse’s Black Rain to remind us that the casualties of the bombs extended well beyond those that were killed and discuss the ethics of civilian bombing.
Then, drawing heavily from the declassified MAGIC documents, I will argue that the struggle to end the War with Japan was not necessarily a decision between using the bombs or invading the mainland as it is often portrayed, but rather between using the bomb and diplomatic solutions.
- Read J.G. Ballard’s “The Terminal Beach”
- Answer the following questions in the comments in about a paragraph: Why did Ballard set his psychological exploration on a Pacific Island nuclear test site? What does the site symbolize / allow him to explore? How are the nuclear test and Traven’s depression connected?
- Read the other students’ answers. This is a multi-faceted story, so multiple perspectives will likely be needed for a full perspective.
Having read Jim Ottiavani’s Fallout, students will be prepared to discuss the Manhattan Project. A turning point in the size and shape of modern physics, the Manhattan Project produced the first nuclear bombs and set the paradigm for nuclear proliferation throughout the 20th century. We will discuss the various possible technologies for Uranium enrichment, Plutonium production, and the basics concepts behind the first two nuclear bombs.
- Read Ibuse’s Black Rain and be prepared for a quiz
- Watch Radio Bikini, Atomic Cafe, and Copenhagen. Radio Bikini is currently available on Netflix. The Atomic Cafe can be rented or bought through Amazon Instant Video. All three videos are currently available on YouTube.
- There is no class on Thursday. This is to allow you to watch these videos, finish reading Black Rain, and reflect on the epic struggle between the United States and Germany.